Synthesis, structure characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis, and computational studies of 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO):acridine

Şen N.

Structural Chemistry, vol.11, no.12, pp.1-15, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11224-024-02326-0
  • Journal Name: Structural Chemistry
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, INSPEC
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-15
  • Police Academy Affiliated: Yes


To modify the physical features and extend applications of the 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), we synthesized NTO with acridine (ACR) at a molar ratio of 1:1, a neutralization reaction. Through altering the chemical composition, it was possible to alter physical properties such as thermal stability, free space (voids), packing coefficient, crystal density, difference in pKa of co-formers, morphology, solubility, impact sensitivity, and calculated detonation parameters. It appears that physical attributes could be entirely altered. Single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction methods, infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and 13C-NMR), and thermal analysis were utilized to comprehensively characterize and confirm the formation of the structure of NTO: ACR. The substantial hydrogen bond interactions and planar layered structures observed between the cations and anions generated a complex 3D network, providing insight into the structure-property interrelationship. One intriguing feature discovered is the layered structure present in NTO:ACR, which may be responsible for the low impact sensitivity. According to the experimental results, NTO: ACR showed good thermal stability (Td = 229 °C) and outstanding impact sensitivity (IS = 100 J). Detonation velocity and pressure, were calculated using the EXPLO5 software program and found to be 7006 m·s-1, 20.02 G Pa, respectively.