Electrochemical determination of insensitive munition constituents 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) using gold nanoparticle/carbon nanotube-modified pencil graphite electrode in groundwater sample

ASLAN N., Şen N., Tecİman İ., Ali Güngör M.

Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics, vol.48, no.11, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/prep.202300189
  • Journal Name: Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Compendex, INSPEC
  • Keywords: explosive, nitrotriazolone (NTO), pencil graphite electrode, sensor, voltammetry
  • Police Academy Affiliated: Yes


For the electrochemical detection of nitrotriazolone (NTO), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and gold nanoparticles have been combined to generate nanocomposites. Electrochemical analysis and surface characterisation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy techniques were used to confirm the presence of gold nanoparticles on MWCNT. The electrochemical behavior of NTO at the modified pencil graphite electrode in the pH range of 2.0–10.0 (0.04 M Britton-Robinson buffer solution) was evaluated using cyclic (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The suggested electrochemical sensor displayed a quick reaction to NTO with an optimal set of experimental parameters, a linear calibration curve spanning 30 to 1500 nM, and a detection limit of 22.6 nM. Using the differential pulse voltammetry technique, the usefulness of the MWCNT/AuNPs, and PGE for the determination of NTO in groundwater was evaluated.